Говорим без окончаний 1 /We speak without using endings 1
Вы знаете все окончания? Нет?
Do you know all the endings? No?
И не надо! Обойдемся. There's no need! We'll do without them.
Есть много фраз, в которые достаточно
There are lots of phrases where it's enough вставить слово из словаря и всё! to use a word from a dictionary and that's all!
Вопросы/Questions (V) - a verb, (N) - a noun
Можно? - Can I? May I? Is it allowed? Will you let me? Accompanied with a corresponding gesture this word is a universal way to ask for permission in any situation. It's absolutely impersonal. This way you can avoid the long flowery sentences your phrase book might reccomend. (Здесь) можно ...(V)? - A nice way to ask for a general permission to do someting "here". (Здесь) можно по...(V)? - Almost the same as the one above. Adding По we don't mean an action in general but a certain situation. Compare: Здесь можно спать? Is it allowed to sleep here? and Здесь можно поспать? Can I have a nap here (now)?
Что это? - What's this? This phrase can be used to ask not only about one object. It's ok if you ask it pointing out to several things. Что там? - What's there? Ask this about anything that attracts your attention - a letter from your aunt, an accident outside your house, a bag your mom has brought from a store... The only thing that's important is that you're curious. Что есть по...(V)? - What can be found here to...? If you're bored and want to watch TV this question will mean "What's on?" (Что есть посмотреть?) Что бы по...(V)? - A question (meaning pretty much the same as the previous one) a person asks him/herself. Like "What would be nice to...?" Что делать? - What to do? Ask this when you want to know what's your part of work or when you're desperate and need some advice. You can say "Что же делать?" to make it more desperate. Что (здесь) можно по...(V)? - What can I ... (here)? Что вам нужно? - What do you need? It can be asked either to find out what people really need from you or to ask those who are bothering you about what they want. Чё надо? - The same but extremely informal and a bit rude. В чём дело? - What's the matter? We usually ask this question when we are bothered.